Health in climate change - FFT Ecology News

Health in climate change

In August 2007, the Italian local health department found many cases of unusual diseases in Castiglione di Cervia and Castiglione di Ravenna, two small villages separated by a river. About 20 people were affected and one elderly person died (Angelini et al., 2007).

After careful investigation, it was found that the disease was Chikungunya, which is a viral disease carried by insects and transmitted to humans through Aedes or “tiger mosquitoes”. It is very common in Africa and Asia. The root of the infection was attributed to a person’s stay in the area on holiday.

It is believed that the man had contracted the virus before coming to Europe, but he was bitten by a tiger mosquito when he arrived in Italy. Tiger mosquitoes are the vector or carrier of the virus, so it is believed that the virus has infected another person in the village with the virus. This incident triggered a chain reaction: Tiger mosquitoes bit some infected people and spread the virus until a small epidemic.

Interactive network

The outbreak of Chikungunya relies on a complex network of interactions and conditions, revealing some of the health risks and challenges we face in a globalized world. Tourism, climate change, trade, species movement and public health all played a role in this situation.

It is believed that tiger mosquitoes were introduced to Europe through many imported products, from ornamental plants such as “lucky bamboo” to waste tires. Mosquito larvae are found all over Europe, but can only survive in greenhouses in warm southern countries or northern states, such as the Netherlands.

Currently, dengue fever and West Nile fever are also found in Europe, and these diseases are spread by mosquito bites on average. According to a report by the European Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC) in Stockholm, since the first major explosion in Romania in 1996, West Nile fever infection has been recognized as a major public health problem in the country. Europe. There is currently no vaccine, and the main preventive measures are aimed at reducing the risk of mosquito bites.

Intensive food production

It may be that we ourselves created the necessary conditions for the spread of infectious diseases, and these conditions did not exist before. For example, the industrialization of food production has caused serious concern. By breeding only one kind of animal intensively, it is possible to produce a “single breeding” with less genetic variation. These animals are very susceptible to diseases due to poor sanitation or infections spread by wild animals (including birds). Once spread in a single culture, diseases can easily mutate and affect people who interact with these animals. Today, the abuse of antibiotics is considered a way to make up for the lack of natural resistance. This practice, in turn, may cause other problems.

Just like public health, modern high-efficiency agriculture hopes that science and medicine can solve some of the problems raised by the globalized world. ECDC Director Dr. Marc Sprenger said that although modern agriculture benefits many of us by providing cheap and abundant food, it can be the source of unforeseen stress and problems.

For example, due to the widespread use of antibiotics in agriculture, as the resistance of bacteria increases, their effectiveness may decrease. Dr. Sprenger said this may also affect humans.

Innovation: Environment and Health

Efforts to combat climate change will improve air quality The EU’s Climate and Renewable Energy (CARE) plan aims to:

  • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020;
  • Increase the share of renewable energy by 20% by 2020;
  • Increase energy efficiency by 20% by 2020.

The efforts required to achieve these goals will also reduce air pollution in Europe. For example, improving energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy will help reduce the use of fossil fuels, which are the main source of air pollution. These positive side effects are defined as the “common interest” of climate change policy.

The plan is expected to reduce the annual cost of achieving the EU’s air pollution targets by billions of euros. In addition, savings in European health services can be increased sixfold.

Create a link in Europe

The new species and new diseases arriving in Europe are just some of the health effects of climate change. Ultimately, there will be more environmental and social impacts through changing the quality and quantity of water, air and food, as well as through changes in weather patterns, ecosystems, agriculture and livelihoods.

Climate change will also exacerbate environmental problems, such as pollution, and hinder sustainable water supply and sanitation services.

In the summer of 2003, the heat wave that swept Europe claimed the lives of more than 70,000 people, highlighting the need to adapt to climate change. The elderly and people with special conditions are at the highest risk, while the poor are more vulnerable. In urban areas with heavy traffic, the ground is covered by a large area of ​​heat-absorbing surface. Insufficient heat dissipation and poor ventilation at night will exacerbate the impact of heat waves.

For the EU population, when the temperature exceeds a certain threshold (locally specified threshold), it is estimated that the mortality rate will increase by 1-4%. By 2020, the heat-related mortality caused by climate change is expected to rise to more than 25,000 people per year, mainly in Central and Southern Europe.

“Discussions linking health, land use, agriculture, tourism, trade, and climate change must develop in imaginative ways. Dr. Sprenger said that maybe we are not correctly linking public health to the environment or climate change now.

“For example, recently, I went to the health department and asked who is responsible for climate change issues. Someone told me: No. I have no intention of making judgments about a given department or authority, but this situation makes us understand that because of these issues Are interconnected, so we need to change our understanding of these issues,” Dr. Sprenger said.

“The public health system needs to begin to adapt and open up to the possibility of new diseases and new climatic conditions. At this time, people may not be able to get it because their doctors know little about this new virus, which many people consider to be influenza. Correct diagnosis. In order to face new challenges, we need new tools including training, and structures such as laboratories also need to be flexible and adaptable.

  • You can visit the ECDC website: www.ecdc.europa.eu
  • For a complete list of details and references, see the SOER 2010 summary.
  • For a complete interview with Dr. Sprenger, please visit the Segnali website

MosquitoSpecies invasion

The Asian tiger mosquito or Aedes albopictus is one of the most common examples of “invasive species”. It has traditionally existed from Pakistan to North Korea. It is currently widely spread worldwide and is described as “the most invasive mosquito in the world”.

Mosquitoes are just one example of a broader threat to European biodiversity. It is a heterogeneous or non-native species, established due to certain human activities and spread throughout Europe. Alien species can be found in all European ecosystems. Globalization, especially involving the growth of trade and tourism, has led to an increase in the number and types of alien species arriving in Europe.

About 10,000 alien species have been recorded in Europe. Some of them were deliberately introduced, such as potatoes and tomatoes, but they still have a certain economic importance today. Other species known as “invasive alien species” can severely damage horticulture, agriculture, and forests, use them as vectors, and can damage buildings (such as buildings and dams).

Invasive alien species have also changed the ecosystems they live in and affected other species that exist in these ecosystems. The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity regards these species as one of the greatest existing threats to the world’s biodiversity.

In August 2007, the Italian local health department found many cases of unusual diseases in Castiglione di Cervia and Castiglione di Ravenna, two small villages separated by a river. About 20 people were affected and one elderly person died (Angelini et al., 2007).

After careful investigation, it was found that the disease was Chikungunya, which is a viral disease carried by insects and transmitted to humans through Aedes or “tiger mosquitoes”. It is very common in Africa and Asia. The root of the infection was attributed to a person’s stay in the area on holiday.

It is believed that the man had contracted the virus before coming to Europe, but he was bitten by a tiger mosquito when he arrived in Italy. Tiger mosquitoes are the vector or carrier of the virus, so it is believed that the virus has infected another person in the village with the virus. This incident triggered a chain reaction: Tiger mosquitoes bit some infected people and spread the virus until a small epidemic.

Interactive network

The outbreak of Chikungunya relies on a complex network of interactions and conditions, revealing some of the health risks and challenges we face in a globalized world. Tourism, climate change, trade, species movement and public health all played a role in this situation.

It is believed that tiger mosquitoes were introduced to Europe through many imported products, from ornamental plants such as “lucky bamboo” to waste tires. Mosquito larvae are found all over Europe, but can only survive in greenhouses in warm southern countries or northern states, such as the Netherlands.

Currently, dengue fever and West Nile fever are also found in Europe, and these diseases are spread by mosquito bites on average. According to a report by the European Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC) in Stockholm, since the first major explosion in Romania in 1996, West Nile fever infection has been recognized as a major public health problem in the country. Europe. There is currently no vaccine, and the main preventive measures are aimed at reducing the risk of mosquito bites.

Intensive food production

It may be that we ourselves created the necessary conditions for the spread of infectious diseases, and these conditions did not exist before. For example, the industrialization of food production has caused serious concern. By breeding only one kind of animal intensively, it is possible to produce a “single breeding” with less genetic variation. These animals are very susceptible to diseases due to poor sanitation or infections spread by wild animals (including birds). Once spread in a single culture, diseases can easily mutate and affect people who interact with these animals. Today, the abuse of antibiotics is considered a way to make up for the lack of natural resistance. This practice, in turn, may cause other problems.

Just like public health, modern high-efficiency agriculture hopes that science and medicine can solve some of the problems raised by the globalized world. ECDC Director Dr. Marc Sprenger said that although modern agriculture benefits many of us by providing cheap and abundant food, it can be the source of unforeseen stress and problems.

For example, due to the widespread use of antibiotics in agriculture, as the resistance of bacteria increases, their effectiveness may decrease. Dr. Sprenger said this may also affect humans.

Innovation: Environment and Health

Efforts to combat climate change will improve air quality The EU’s Climate and Renewable Energy (CARE) plan aims to:

  • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020;
  • Increase the share of renewable energy by 20% by 2020;
  • Increase energy efficiency by 20% by 2020.

The efforts required to achieve these goals will also reduce air pollution in Europe. For example, improving energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy will help reduce the use of fossil fuels, which are the main source of air pollution. These positive side effects are defined as the “common interest” of climate change policy.

The plan is expected to reduce the annual cost of achieving the EU’s air pollution targets by billions of euros. In addition, savings in European health services can be increased sixfold.

Create a link in Europe

The new species and new diseases arriving in Europe are just some of the health effects of climate change. Ultimately, there will be more environmental and social impacts through changing the quality and quantity of water, air and food, as well as through changes in weather patterns, ecosystems, agriculture and livelihoods.

Climate change will also exacerbate environmental problems, such as pollution, and hinder sustainable water supply and sanitation services.

In the summer of 2003, the heat wave that swept Europe claimed the lives of more than 70,000 people, highlighting the need to adapt to climate change. The elderly and people with special conditions are at the highest risk, while the poor are more vulnerable. In urban areas with heavy traffic, the ground is covered by a large area of ​​heat-absorbing surface. Insufficient heat dissipation and poor ventilation at night will exacerbate the impact of heat waves.

For the EU population, when the temperature exceeds a certain threshold (locally specified threshold), it is estimated that the mortality rate will increase by 1-4%. By 2020, the heat-related mortality caused by climate change is expected to rise to more than 25,000 people per year, mainly in Central and Southern Europe.

“Discussions linking health, land use, agriculture, tourism, trade, and climate change must develop in imaginative ways. Dr. Sprenger said that maybe we are not correctly linking public health to the environment or climate change now.

“For example, recently, I went to the health department and asked who is responsible for climate change issues. Someone told me: No. I have no intention of making judgments about a given department or authority, but this situation makes us understand that because of these issues Are interconnected, so we need to change our understanding of these issues,” Dr. Sprenger said.

“The public health system needs to begin to adapt and open up to the possibility of new diseases and new climatic conditions. At this time, people may not be able to get it because their doctors know little about this new virus, which many people consider to be influenza. Correct diagnosis. In order to face new challenges, we need new tools including training, and structures such as laboratories also need to be flexible and adaptable.

  • You can visit the ECDC website: www.ecdc.europa.eu
  • For a complete list of details and references, see the SOER 2010 summary.
  • For a complete interview with Dr. Sprenger, please visit the Segnali website

MosquitoSpecies invasion

The Asian tiger mosquito or Aedes albopictus is one of the most common examples of “invasive species”. It has traditionally existed from Pakistan to North Korea. It is currently widely spread worldwide and is described as “the most invasive mosquito in the world”.

Mosquitoes are just one example of a broader threat to European biodiversity. It is a heterogeneous or non-native species, established due to certain human activities and spread throughout Europe. Alien species can be found in all European ecosystems. Globalization, especially involving the growth of trade and tourism, has led to an increase in the number and types of alien species arriving in Europe.

About 10,000 alien species have been recorded in Europe. Some of them were deliberately introduced, such as potatoes and tomatoes, but they still have a certain economic importance today. Other species known as “invasive alien species” can severely damage horticulture, agriculture, and forests, use them as vectors, and can damage buildings (such as buildings and dams).

Invasive alien species have also changed the ecosystems they live in and affected other species that exist in these ecosystems. The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity regards these species as one of the greatest existing threats to the world’s biodiversity.